The oncologist prescribes anti-cancer drugs and medication which are ingested either orally (through the mouth) or intravenously (through a catheter). Possible side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, and hair loss.
Colonoscopy is a diagnostic method that involves using a catheter or tube like instrument known as a colonoscope. The end of the tube houses a lens or camera that is connected to a video screen or monitor. It will also have specialized tools for polyp extraction.
When a woman receives abnormal Pap smear results, we would normally recommend Colposcopy. This test can be performed on either an outpatient or inpatient basis, because we sometimes need to use anesthesia or sedation if a patient is overly anxious. The procedure involves the use of an instrument called the colposcope, which is a very powerful lighted binocular microscope used to magnify the cervix to enable the gynecologist to pinpoint the origin of the pre cancer cell and treat the patient on the spot. Through colposcopy, the patient is both diagnosed and also given treatment.
When a tumor is found, Prince Court Medical Centre offers HDR (High-dose rate) Brachytherapy, a new and highly effective method of administering radiation treatment for tumors. This procedure will allow for the administration of a very high dose of radiation to the cancer target, and to eliminate and minimize the radiation to the surrounding normal tissue, and therefore minimizing the side effects to the patient.
There are four main stages of cervical cancer. Surgery should be done only for the early stage which are stage 1 and stage 2; the later and more advanced stages would require radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment. For surgery on patients with stage 1 and stage 2 cervical cancers, Prince Court Medical Centre is currently one of the few hospitals in the region that offers robotic surgery, which is what we refer to as minimally invasive surgery. Minimally invasive surgery can be expensive, but its advantages over conventional operations make it an attractive choice to consider.
Extracting polyps either by slicing the tissue or burning it is relatively painless because the colon walls or the lining of the colon lacks the ability to experience pain. Like other minimally invasive procedures available at Prince Court Medical Center, it presents lower risk of physical trauma and damage to the internal organs and tissue, less complications from the danger of infection and little to no scarring. Recovery time is also much shorter than compared with conventional open surgery of the past.
In line with the objectives of ensuring full and comprehensive coverage and services for all maternity and fertility health care management, the Obstetric & Gynaecology Center also provides screening for chromosomal disorders such as the three most common that are Down’s syndrome, Patau syndrome and Edward syndrome. That’s where cytogenetics comes in; another word for it is amniocentesis. It involves inserting a needle inside the mother’s abdomen straight into the uterus to collect sample fluids which will be sent to the lab for it to be cultured, and the cells will be checked for any chromosomal abnormalities.
Both the sperm and the egg are frail and fragile. Especially so for the female egg which is extremely friable, even compared to the sperm. Once both have been extracted from the parent bodies it is the job of the embryologist to ensure not only their survivability but also that they thrive, by providing the optimum healthy environment. During the 3-5 day fertilization period, the embryologist monitors the temperature and pH acidity of the culture media to ensure optimal conditions for the development of healthy embryos. But that is not their only job. They also engage in semen analysis to test the viability of the sperm, and also in freezing the embryos. The embryologist is always researching on improving the overall quality of the embryos and of increasing the success of the IVF treatment so hopeful couples do not fear it was all in vain.
Arthroscopy or also known as arthroscopic surgery is a minimally invasive treatment of joints (‘arthro’ meaning joints and ‘scope’ meaning looking into.) This surgery is performed using an arthroscope, a type of endoscope that is inserted into the joint through a small incision. The advantage of arthroscopy over traditional open surgery is that the joint does not have to be opened up fully. And thanks to the smaller incisions, both pain and scarring can be minimized. However, recovery rates and durations still vary according to the severity the condition as well as the patient’s overall health. The common joints that can be treated through arthroscopy are the knee, shoulder, elbow, wrist, ankle, and hip joint.
Multiple ligament injury of the knee is a complex problem in orthopaedic surgery, something that is not commonly dealt with in Malaysia. Multiple ligament knee injuries are usually the result of knee dislocations following a high energy motor vehicle accidents or high velocity sport injuries. The surgical reconstruction takes a dedicated and highly experienced team to execute and is a very technically demanding procedure.
The rehabilitation program differs according to the type of injuries. The rehab physician and the therapist need to be aware of the patients’ injuries and they will propose a certain rehab program based on the injuries. The orthopaedic surgeon will guide the rehabilitation process because we diagnose the problem; and the rehab physician and the therapist who will run the day-to-day program.